Pleistocene Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa)

Wood ducks differ from most other species of ducks because they nest in hollow trees, rather than in thick wetland vegetation.  Unlike migratory species of ducks that prefer to fly over open water or high in the sky, wood ducks comfortably fly between trees.  However, wood ducks do share a love of water with their kin.   Shortly after wood ducklings hatch, they jump out of their nest and follow their parent to water.  Oftentimes, their den tree is located in flooded terrain and the water guarantees a safe landing.  But the ducklings are so light they can land on solid ground without sustaining injury, though they are not yet able to fly.

Image result for wood duck

Male wood ducks are much more colorful than females.  I’ve only seen wood ducks on 1 occasion, while I was visiting Phinizy Swamp Park in Augusta, Georgia.

Wood ducks probably first speciated during the early Pliocene when Ice Ages began occurring, and glaciers caused a divergence in the Holarctic ancestral population that also gave rise to their closest living relative, the mandarin duck (Aix galericulata) of east Asia–the only other species of duck in the Aix genus.  Fossil evidence of wood ducks dating to the late Pliocene and Pleistocene has been found at 6 sites in Florida and 1 each in Oregon, New Mexico, and Georgia; suggesting the species has been widespread for millions of years.  (Pleistocene wood duck remains in Georgia were excavated from Kingston Saltpeter Cave, Bartow County.)  Wood ducks were likely most common during interglacials and interstadials when their favored habitat–beaver ponds and woodlands with abundant streams–expanded.  Wood ducks eat acorns, seeds, berries, and insects.  Oaks increased in abundance during wetter climate phases, therefore providing more acorns for wood ducks to eat.

There are eastern and western populations of wood ducks.

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Wood duck range map.

Genetic evidence suggests these populations diverged ~34,000 years ago.  This is consistent with the record of climate change.  The stage 2 stadial that included the Last Glacial Maximum started about 29,000 years ago and before this climate frequently fluctuated between stadial and interstadial. Any 1 of the previous stadials preceding stage 2 or stage 2 itself could have caused the ecological changes isolating the 2 populations.  Dry grassland habitat expanded and streams dried up, so that eastern and western populations were separated into different refugia.  They still haven’t reconnected, even though the 2 populations come so close to each other in the midwest.


Peters, J.L.; W. Gretes, and K. Omland

“Late Pleistocene Divergence between Eastern and Western Populations of Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa) inferred by the ‘Isolation with Migration’ Coalescent Method”

Molecular Ecology (11) October 2005



One Response to “Pleistocene Wood Ducks (Aix sponsa)”

  1. ina puustinen-westerholm Says:

    Ahhh thank I ‘travel’..amoungst these wood ducks..on all the mornings hiking..through neighboring hazelnut orchards..where they , and poo. Like tracking the ..fave-limbs for to owls, chicken hawks..etc. one simply ..’reads the poo trails’ one wanders.

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