Posts Tagged ‘polar bear/brown bear hybrids’

ABC Bears

November 5, 2018

During the Ice Age the coast of southeast Alaska was studded with ice floes and perfect habitat for seals and polar bears.  The interior of Alaska was mostly grassy steppe, the preferred habitat of brown bears.  About 16,700 years ago the icy habitat along the southeast coast of Alaska began to melt and polar bear populations became stranded on Admiralty, Baranet, and Chichagof Islands; also known as the ABC islands.  Here, the habitat began to become more favorable for grizzly bears, and young males looking for new territory not already occupied by adult males colonized the islands.  A genetic study of 1 specimen from this island group determined these colonizing male brown bears mated with female polar bears, creating an hybrid population  (Ursus arctos x U. maritimus).  Gradually, the population of brown bears swamped the DNA of this region, so today polar bear DNA makes up just 6% of their X  chromosome (the female chromosome is XX; the male is normally XY).  Polar bear DNA has also been found in specimens of the extinct Irish brown bear.  DNA evidence suggests polar bears diverged from brown bears about 4 million years ago, but there has been periodic hybridization in regions where the 2 species overlap.

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Location of the ABC islands.

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Top 2 photos are polar bear/brown bear hybrids in captivity.  Bottom right is a polar bear; bottom left a brown bear.  The 2 species rarely do hybridize in the wild.

A few months ago, Discovery Channel aired a program about the ABC bears that I lambasted in this blog article https://markgelbart.wordpress.com/2018/06/04/the-fear-island-special-that-aired-on-animal-planet-last-night-was-full-of-shit/ .  Previously, Discovery Channel has aired programs about Bigfoot, mermaids, and the extant existence of a 60 foot long extinct species of shark.  I assumed this program was completely bad pseudo-science, but 1 of my readers alerted me to the scientific merits of this program and also informed me that I wrongly assumed the ABC islands were the same as the Kodiak islands.  The Kodiak islands are on the other side of the Gulf of Alaska, so I errored geographically by hundreds of miles.  And the expedition on this program did have scientific merit because they were seeking just the 2nd DNA sample from an ABC bear.  However, I still think this program was full of shit…just not as full of shit as I initially assumed.  Here is why I stand by my first opinion:

1. The participants acted as if they were the first researchers to ever obtain DNA evidence from a bear on the island, though a study of 1 specimen had already been published.  They already had a good idea what they were going to find, and it was not a great mystery as they promoted.

2. The Indian guide claimed he saw 6 bears ceremonially bury another dead bear.  What unscientific bull crap.

3. I don’t buy the size estimate claim.  It was based on an up close trail cam photo.  Weigh it or just shut up.

Reference:

Cahill, J; et. al.

“Genetic Evidence for Island Populations Conversion Resolves Conflicting Theories of Polar Bear Evolution”

PLOS Genetics 2013

 

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