In Defense of House Sparrows

Jessica Neal and Virginie Rolland, scientists from Arkansas State, published a paper in Southeastern Naturalist about their research of bluebird nesting boxes, and they mentioned “euthanizing” non-native house sparrow nestlings that they found occupying the nest boxes intended for bluebirds.  This irritates me for several reasons.  I hate the use of the word, euthanize, because it was used to sanitize what they actually did.  They killed helpless baby birds.  Many people kill house sparrows because this species outcompetes native birds such as bluebirds, swallows, woodpeckers, and unestablished purple martins.  It is too bad these species may be in decline, but when she killed the house sparrows that were occupying that site there were then fewer  birds occupying that area.  Bluebirds probably weren’t going to return to that site during that nesting season, and there is no guarantee they ever will.  Without the house sparrows there was less avifauna for bird watchers to enjoy.  I also don’t like the way they played God by deciding which species they wanted to live there.  Some may say humans already decided to play God by introducing house sparrows to North America in 1852 when ironically they were brought to New York to control native linden moths.  I reject this argument.  Humans shouldn’t pick an animal to introduce, then decide they don’t want it any more and try to eradicate it.  Not only are humans playing God, they are playing a fickle God in this case.  Not even the worst Old Testament version of God was this monstrous.

Image result for house sparrow

House sparrows are a commensal species with humans.

I love house sparrows because they thrive where few other birds can.  Every grocery store shopping center hosts a colony of house sparrows, and they often live in the patio section of big chain lawn and garden centers.  This habitat is completely unsuitable for native songbirds.  The only other bird species I see in suburban parking lots are city pigeons (also non-native) and ring-billed gulls during winter.  But house sparrows are abundant in these otherwise barren urban environments where they feast on discarded junk foods and fill the atmosphere with their delightful singing.

The house sparrow (Passer domesticus) originated in the Middle East having evolved from P. predomesticus following the development of agriculture.  Fossil remains of P. predomesticus have been unearthed from Qumm-Quatufa Cave in Israel that date to the mid-Pleistocene.  House sparrows may have already been a commensal species with archaic humans, hanging around their garbage middens.  Late Pleistocene remains have also been discovered from Kebara Cave in Israel.  Genetic evidence suggests P. predomestica diverged from the Spanish sparrow (P. hispaniolensis) about 100,000 years ago.  Another genetic study suggests P. domesticus evolved larger skulls and an improved ability to digest starch 11,000 years ago–the dawn of the agricultural era.  The larger skulls helped them crack human-grown grains, and the improved ability to digest starch let them survive on an heavy diet of wheat, rye, and oats.  They became less dependent upon insects than their wildest remaining subspecies P. domesticus bactranius. Unfortunately for other songbirds, their larger skulls gave them greater biting and piercing force, and this allows house sparrows to outcompete them.

House sparrows followed humans throughout Europe and Asia where they continued to feast on grain spillage and nest on housing structures.  This close association with humans let house sparrows conquer the world wherever humans became established.  House sparrows were formerly even more abundant when the horse and buggy were the most common mode of transportation.  In addition to excess grain spillage house sparrows ate the undigested grains in horse manure.  But the introduction of the automobile dealt a little setback to house sparrow populations, reducing the amount of grain and manure in the environment.  Nevertheless, a trip to the local grocery store is all it takes to see them.

References:

Schans, Franke

“How the Sparrow Made Its Home with Humans”

Science August 24, 2018

Neal, Jessica; and Virginie Rolland

“A Potential Case of Brood Parasitism by Eastern Bluebirds on House Sparrows”

Southeastern Naturalist (14) 2 2015

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One Response to “In Defense of House Sparrows”

  1. Leanne Silva Says:

    Thank you! You have expressed my feelings about house sparrows better than I could, and I appreciated the information about their evolution, too. I like to do my part to preserve so-called native species, but I would never kill birds that don’t meet someone’s definition of “native”. Some people take the whole “native species” campaign too far – have they learned nothing from history or science about the the irrationality of racial purity ideals?

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