Capybaras and Hippos Take II

(Note: I tried publishing this post yesterday but due to undetermined technical difficulties the text disappeared.  Hopefully, this entry will have text.)

I planned on writing a blog article about Pleistocene capybaras of southeastern North America, but when I began researching the topic on google I discovered I’d already written a pretty good essay 2 years ago.  (See: https://markgelbart.wordpress.com/2015/12/07/megafauna-habitat-modification-and-pleistocene-capybaras-in-southeastern-north-america/https://markgelbart.wordpress.com/2015/12/07/megafauna-habitat-modification-and-pleistocene-capybaras-in-southeastern-north-america/ ) I’ve written 601 articles for my blog, and it’s hard for me to remember everything I’ve already covered.  Much to my disappointment, there has been little recent academic research about the extinct species of capybaras.  There were 2 species that lived in Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, and probably the Gulf States during the Pleistocene–Neochoerus pinkneyi  and Hydrochoerus holmesi.  Both were more than twice as large as the 2 extant species of capybaras that are presently confined to Central and South America near the equator.  I hypothesize the extinct species could endure somewhat colder air temperatures than their modern day kin due to their larger size.  Nevertheless, they probably extended their range during warmer wetter climate cycles. In my previous blog entry linked above  I think I mentioned how capybaras occupy an ecological niche similar to that occupied by African hippos.  Both are aquatic species that graze adjacent water’s edge marshes into lawn-like environments.  But I didn’t note the remarkable evolutionary convergence in the physical appearance between the 2 unrelated animals.

Image result for capybara

Capybara and young.

Convergent evolution is when 2 unrelated organisms evolve similar characteristics to adapt to similar environments.  Capybaras and hippos have similar height to weight ratios.  They also share other characteristics such as small round ears, short necks, square faces, and thick hides.

Hippos remind me of ancient extinct animals from earlier ages…like the kind of monstrous beasts of the Miocene or Eocene.  They should be appreciated for their resemblance to primitive extinct evolutionary dead-ends and ancestral species.  Hippos are most closely related to whales, having shared a common ancestor 28 million years ago known as Epirigenys lokonensis. Hippos resemble the primitive ancestors of whales.

Several extinct species of hippos were widespread in Europe during the Pleistocene but disappeared during the Last Glacial Maximum when available habitat shrank into small refugia where they were more easily hunted into extinction by man. Several species of hippos were also driven into extinction when man colonized Madagascar.  Dwarf species of hippos lived on the Mediterranean Islands of Crete, Cyprus, Sicily, and Malta until man discovered those places.  Just 2 extant species of hippo remain —Hippopotamus amphibious and Hexaprotodon lieberiensis. 

Hippos are the most dangerous non-human vertebrate in Africa.  They are responsible for an average of 2900 deaths every year.  However, mosquitoes and flies spread tropical diseases that kill about 655,000 people annually.  Paradoxically, these tiny pests are a greater hazard than a 2 ton hippo.

 

 

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One Response to “Capybaras and Hippos Take II”

  1. ina puustinen-westerholm Says:

    As usual..reading which sends any of us..into transports of..’if we had them here/now’. Ok..maybe just..the mini-ones. Thanks much.

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