Alligators vs Sharks

Bloody battles between hundreds of alligators and sharks were an oddity of nature that occurred infrequently for millions of years.  Alligators are considered a freshwater species, but they do inhabit brackish lagoons and can even live in saltwater environments for weeks.  Alligators foraging near beaches normally prey on fish, shrimp, crabs, wading birds, raccoons, mink, and sea turtles.  Alligators take advantage of weather and tidal conditions that concentrate their prey in confined areas.  During the year 1877 near Jupiter, Florida a strong flood tide trapped a large number of fish in a bend of a tidal inlet, attracting an estimated 500 alligators.  The alligator feeding frenzy lasted for days, and the blood drew hundreds of sharks into the main channel of the inlet.  The current shifted and carried the alligators into the main channel where they fought sharks for hours.  Dead alligators and sharks washed ashore for days, following the battle.  It is unlikely such a spectacle could occur today.  Sharks have been overfished, greatly diminishing their population, and alligators, though on the increase, will never be as abundant as they were when Florida was mostly wilderness.  However, the primeval world was the scene of many alligator vs shark wars because they co-existed for millions of years, often competing for the same prey.  Alligators are a member of the crocodilian family.  The crocodilians evolved at least 83.5 million years ago, and the ancestors of the crocodilians, the Pseudosuchia, originated 250 million years ago.  The ancestors of the alligator’s ancestors undoubtedly came into conflict with sharks.  It’s an ancient rivalry.  Spectacular battles between large groups of alligators and sharks may no longer occur, but individual crocodilians and sharks still eat each other on occasion.

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Alligator preying on a nurse shark at the Ding Darling National Wildlife Refuge near Sanibel, Florida.  This photo is on the cover of this quarter’s Southeastern Naturalist.

An article published in this quarter’s Southeastern Naturalist collects all the known incidences of alligators preying on sharks and vice versa. On Wassaw Island, Georgia a scientist saw an alligator prey upon a bonnethead shark, and he also witnessed another alligator catch and eat a lemon shark.  A case of an alligator preying on a bonnethead took place at St. Mark, Florida as well.  Bonnetheads feed on crabs in shallow water, making them vulnerable to alligator attack.  The photo above shows an alligator preying on a nurse shark. Sharks have been recorded feeding upon bottom-dwelling southern and Atlantic stingrays, and stinging barbs are occasionally found embedded in alligators.

There are no recent incidents of known shark attacks on alligators, but there are 3 records from the late 19th century, including the account mentioned in the first paragraph.  In addition to that account a shark bit an alligator in 2 near Pilot Cove, Florida in 1884, and in 1888 5 or 6 alligators battled a similar number of sharks in the Indian River, resulting in some deaths of both.

Around the world there are numerous cases of crocodiles and sharks eating each other.  Bull sharks venture into fresh water and have been recorded falling victim to Australian salt water crocodiles.  Crocodile remains have been removed from the stomachs of tiger sharks near Australia, South Africa, and Indonesia.  Caimans filled the belly of at least 1 tiger shark off the coast of South America.

Who wins a fight between an alligator or crocodile and a shark?  It depends upon the size of the individual and who bites who first.  The larger individuals have the bigger bite and the advantage, but if they are close to the same size, the first to deliver a serious bite quickly gains the upper hand.

*Note the title of the reference below.  The dispassionate scientifically proper language amuses me to no end.  Translated into layman’s English it means alligators and sharks eating each other.

Reference:

Nifong, James; and Russel Lowers

“Reciprocal Intraguild Predation between Alligator mississippiensis (American alligator) and Elasmobranchiii in Southeastern United States”

Southeastern Naturalist 3 (16) 2017

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2 Responses to “Alligators vs Sharks”

  1. ina puustinen-westerholm Says:

    Racing..Far from the main story line..I remember..making a list of a farmers word list..as to the quality of the assorted, summer produce..when it may have become..’not prime anymore’. Posted it for our customers..of berrys and assorted produce. For a cheap afternoon ‘game’..sit friends down..with tea or wine..and ask them..to list the Actual word..describing a ..pastprime apple, then..a ‘creative’..description. At first..the silence..is..like..DUH? …but THEN..the words..flow…. 😉

  2. Juan del Barrio Says:

    Would have loved to see this battle!

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