The North Charleston Mastodon

Construction workers digging a foundation for a building in North Charleston, South Carolina 5 years ago uncovered the remains of a mastodon.  Bones including a partial tusk, femur, vertebrae, jaw, ribs, and feet were excavated.  One scientist also examined the surrounding sediment for pollen and plant remains. Apparently, the site was riverbank, and the mastodon likely was covered in flood-borne sediment.  I hope a paper is published detailing the information yielded by this site.  So far, all the information I can find comes from 2 abstracts that described poster presentations of the find at scientific meetings.  The authors didn’t even put the posters on the internet.

One presentation compared the pollen found here to that from other Pleistocene-aged sites located near the present day coast–St. Catherine’s Island, Reid’s and Bell’s Bluff, and a site along the Georgia-Florida border.  All of these sites were farther inland during Ice Ages.  Like these other sites, the North Charleston locality had a strange admixture of species presently found at higher latitudes with those still found in the region.  Water milfoil, an aquatic plant, occurred here.  This is not surprising because mastodons were semi-aquatic.  Hickory pollen was “unusually” abundant, indicating a moist temperate climate, but the pollen of red pine, a northern species, was found in association with sub-tropical Spanish moss.  Other Pleistocene sites in the region yield hemlock, basswood, and walnut–species no longer found this far south.  However, I’m skeptical about the identification of supposed red pine pollen.  This species currently occurs in New England, a region that was under glacial ice for much of the Ice Age when its range was forced south.  I doubt it occurred as far south as South Carolina though because there are no relic populations in the southeast.  Red pine pollen is distinguished from pollen of southern pines on the basis of size.  Pollen grains under 43 micrometers in size are classified as northern species of pine, while those over 43 micrometers are thought to be from southern pines.  Shortleaf pine is a common southern species of pine whose pollen grains overlap in size with red pine pollen grains.  Moreover, under the atmospheric conditions of low CO2 as occurred during Ice Ages, shortleaf pine pollen grains may have been slightly smaller than those of the present day.  In my opinion they look identical as the below photos show.  I believe pollen classified as red pine in the below reference and several other studies is from shortleaf pine which is still widespread in the region.

Image result for Pinus echinata pollen grain

Shortleaf pine pollen grains average a “maximum” 50-75 micrometers in size.

Image result for comparison of pinus resinosa pollen grains

Photos of northern species of pine pollen grains including red pine (Pinus resinosa), jack pine, and white pine.  Red pine and white pine pollen grains easily overlap in size with shortleaf pine.  Therefore, I’m not convinced of palynologists’ claim that red pine occurred in the southeast during Ice Ages.

Reference:

Rich, Fred

“The North Charleston Mastodon Site–New Insights Drawn from Paleoecological Synthesis”

The Geological Society of America: Southeastern Section–64th annual meeting

 

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2 Responses to “The North Charleston Mastodon”

  1. ina puustinen-westerholm Says:

    Have you made a university by university..search..(the usual dept areas)..to see if anyone..has covered the find..YET? Is this ..sort of..let’s ignore it..a situation..being ..let go..so as to not drag the religious sorts..into a fear level..brought on by..ACTUAL..scientific news? Ya gots to wonder!!

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