Dumpster Dingoes

Bacteria. Cockroaches. Flies. And even higher organisms. Mice. Rats. Sea gulls. Crows. Bald Eagles. Cats. Dogs. Wolves. Bears.  These are just some of the organisms that benefit from the food waste produced by humans.  We waste up to 40% of the food we produce.  The proliferation of Homo sapiens since the late Pleistocene has been detrimental to many species, but others have adapted to our presence.  Scientists estimate anthropogenic sources, including livestock and garbage, make up 32% of the worldwide gray wolf diet.  The last surviving population of Asiatic lions almost entirely subsists on livestock.  Studies show Australian dingoes and red foxes that live near landfills have smaller home ranges and higher survival rates than other individuals of the same species.  Dingoes living near garbage dumps grow fat and mate with domestic dogs, producing hybrids that could be called dumpster dingoes.  This same study found black bears foraging around dumpsters have shorter lifespans because they come into conflict with people and get shot.

Image result for Animals scavenging a landfill

Landfills are excellent sites for bird watching.  They attract gulls, crows, and vultures.  I have even seen a bald eagle soaring over one.

Image result for animals scavenging landfill

Dogs evolved from wolves that hung around human refuse heaps.

Dingoes are super efficient hunters that prey on almost everything they can kill

Dingo chasing a kangaroo.  Dingoes that hang around landfills get fat and lazy and mate with domestic dogs.

The existence of human refuse heaps likely spurred the evolution of wolf into dog.  The physical characteristics that differentiate dogs from wolves share the same genetic pathway with tameness.  The 2nd and 3rd generations of canids with the least flight response develop the floppy ears and multi-colored coats common in domestic dogs.  Some scientists think it possible some modern day wolves scavenging dumpsters could again evolve into a type of dog.

Genetic studies suggest dogs developed the ability to digest more starch about 4000-7000 years ago–another step in the ongoing evolution of wolf to dog.  This coincides with the development of agriculture when humans began cultivating cereal grains.  Dogs with digestive systems capable of producing more amylase, the enzyme that helps convert starch to sugar, were better able to survive on bread when humans started consuming more cereal grains instead of (or as a supplement to)  meat.

Dingoes descend from dogs brought to Australia about 4000 years ago by people from the subcontinent of India who later assimilated with Australian aborigines.  Dingoes are primitive dogs similar enough to their wolf ancestors that they can revert to the wild and thrive.  Dingoes rapidly became the top non-human predator in Australia.  Most people are unaware dingoes live in America as well. ( See: https://markgelbart.wordpress.com/2013/02/11/the-american-dingo/ ) Native Americans brought primitive dogs with them from Asia, and some of them went wild here just like they did in Australia.  North American dingoes are known as Carolina dogs and were not recognized as a distinct wild canid until a scientist found them running wild during the 1970s on the Savannah River Site in South Carolina.

The observed differences between wolf, dingo, and dog are a good example of recent evolution.  They also show the line between species can be blurry.  All 3 can interbreed and produce fertile offspring.  So some scientists think dogs and dingoes should be classified as subspecies of wolf.  On the other hand the physical and behavioral characteristics of each are quite different, and some scientists still classify them as distinct species.  Domestic dogs are entirely dependent upon humans, dingoes (a transitional form between dog and wolf) can take us or leave us, and wolves avoid us and probably wish humans would become extinct.  I prefer classifying them as separate species based on behavioral differences.

References:

Marshall-Pescini, Sarah; Ingo Besserdick, C. Kratz, F. Rang

“Exploring Differences in Dogs and Wolves’ Preference for Risk in Foraging Trash”

Frontiers in Psychology August 2016

Newsome, Thomas; Gary Ballard, Matthew Crouther, and Chris Dickman

“Dietary Niche Overlap of Free-Roaming Dingoes and Domestic Dogs: The Role of Human-Provided Food”

Journal of Mammalogy April 2014

Oro, Daniel; et. al.

“Ecological and Evolutionary Implications of Food Subsidies from Humans”

Ecology Letters October 2013

 

 

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2 Responses to “Dumpster Dingoes”

  1. ina puustinen-westerholm Says:

    As usual..fantastic ..assembling/mining/presentation of worthy material..for those of us..who value..’touching’..the wild world..both now..through history..and seek..glimpses..of the future. Having had way too much coffee this morning, but..enjoyed a smashingly interesting 5 day trip..into the Olympics..plus an ..equally ‘smashing’..36 hours of Amtrak travel..Thursday night..I am..back in the real world. So many thanks,.

  2. w Says:

    “Our new feathered overlords!”

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