The Carolina parakeet was a common species living in old growth bottomland forests until Europeans settled eastern North America. Overhunting and deforestation doomed this only temperate species of parakeet. The colorful noisy birds were an agricultural pest that destroyed ripening fruit when they fed upon the seeds inside the pulp. Orchardists wiped out entire flocks. Though parakeets are supposed to be intelligent, they were not well adapted to avoiding patient men with guns. A farmer firing his weapon into a flock (the birds routinely congregated in flocks of 200-300) caused the survivors to fly in a wide circle and return to the same place where their feathered comrades had just been killed. A farmer could slaughter the entire flock in an afternoon without moving from the same spot. Carolina parakeets nested in large hollow trees, but lumbering operations during the late 19th century eliminated their homes as well. The last population of Carolina parakeets was probably rubbed out by market hunters seeking red and green and yellow feathers, then fashionable in women’s hats. The last wild specimen was taken near Lake Okeechobee, Florida in 1904, and the last captive specimen died in the Cincinnati Zoo in 1918, coincidentally the same place and year where the last passenger pigeon died.
Until recently, the only North American fossil remains of a parakeet was a specimen found in Nebraska, dating to the mid-Miocene (about 16 million years BP). Scientists are uncertain if this specimen represents a species ancestral to the Carolina parakeet, the same species, or a different lineage. In any case no fossil remains of a parakeet dating to the Pleistocene age (~2 million years BP-11,000 years BP) had ever been found in North America. Carolina parakeets lived in habitat where preservational processes don’t often occur. Most bird remains are found in caves where they were carried by roosting owls or hawks. There aren’t many caves in the lowland habitats favored by parakeets. Moreover, the flesh of parakeets was toxic to many predators because they fed on poisonous cocklebur seeds. Their colorful plumage may have worked as a deterrent to predators who learned to avoid the well-marked prey that may have sickened them previously. Although preservational bias was the probable reason why remains of this species had never been found, it was possible Carolina parakeets were a recently evolved species that colonized North America, following the end of the most recent glacial-interglacial transition. But finally, just a few years ago, the remains of a Pleistocene-age Carolina parakeet were unearthed at the Dickerson Coquina sand pit in St. Lucie County, Florida. Fossils found at this site are estimated to be somewhat younger than 730,000 years BP-430,000 years BP, proving that Carolina parakeets had a very long history in North America.
St. Lucie County, Florida. The Dickerson Coquina Pit fossil site, located in this county, yielded the first known Pleistocene-age remains of a Carolina parakeet.
The extinct Carolina parakeet.
Range map of the formerly widespread Carolina parakeet. It was doomed by overhunting and deforestation.
Sand is mined from the Dickerson Coquina sand pit to replace sand lost on Hutchinson Island to erosion. Hutchinson Island is located in the same county as the sand pit. Pleistocene-age fossils have been found in the sand pit and on the sand dumped on Hutchinson Island Beach. Electron spin resonance dating determined the specimens excavated from the sand pit were above a layer dated to 730,000 years BP-430,000 years BP. The species found are consistent with this dating and were common during the late Pleistocene including giant tortoise ( Hesperostestudo crassicutata ), box turtle, snakes, sharks, rays, fish, mammoth, paleollama, tapir, horse, pampathere, dire wolf, and jaguar. No bison fossils were found. Bison didn’t colonize North America until 300,000 years ago, so the absence of this species is consistent with an estimated date of 400,000 years BP for the fossils found here.
The remains of at least 24 species of birds have been excavated from these sands including a number of interesting extinct or extralimital species aside from the Carolina parakeet. (The complete list of species found is described in the paper linked below as a reference). Ornithologists have identified the remains of great auk ( Pinguinus impennis ), short-tailed albatross ( Phoebastrea albatrus ), northern gannet ( Morus bassanus ), an extinct stork ( Ciconia maltha ), and an unnamed extinct crane ( Grus sp. ).
Today, the short-tailed albatross nests on just 4 islands in the North Pacific between Hawaii and Japan (including Midway near where the famous WWII battle took place). But the presence of their bones in Florida means this species formerly ranged throughout the North Atlantic Ocean. They probably nested on islands that were inundated by rising sea levels about 400,000 years ago, causing their extirpation here, but they didn’t necessarily nest in Florida. Storms may have blown flocks inland.
Today, the short-tailed albatross is a rare bird that nests on 4 islands in the North Pacific, but it also lived in the Atlantic Ocean during the middle Pleistocene.
The great auk was a denizen of rocky islands off the coast of Maine and Canada until 1852 when it was overhunted to extinction. I hypothesize they nested on a rocky island off the coast of South Carolina, known as Bulls Scarp, that was above sea level during Glacial Maximums. This possible nesting site may explain why they were close enough to have fished waters off the coast of Florida. It’s likely storms blew this species inland as well.
The great auk was overhunted to extinction by 1852. Remains of this species were also found at this site. I hypothesize that during Glacial Maximums this species may have nested as far south as South Carolina.
Northern gannets nest on subarctic islands in the North Atlantic but range throughout most of the Atlantic when seeking fish. They too may have nested on Bulls Scarp. The extinct species of stork probably ate carrion and depended upon the existence of large herds of megafauna for a major part of its food supply. Not enough skeletal material has been found here from the large extinct species of crane to officially name it. The fossil bone recovered from the sand pit resembles that from an extinct flightless crane that formerly lived in Cuba, but it is not an exact match. This species was probably not flightless, like its Cuban cousin, because there were too many predators on the mainland.
Kilmer, John; and David Steadman
“A Middle Pleistocene Bird Community from Saint Lucie County, Florida”
Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History 2016