Pleistocene Ungulates of Interstadial Oak Woodlands and Forests in Southeastern North America

I have long been curious about the wildlife I would encounter, if I could travel in a time machine to a wilderness cabin located in central Georgia 36,000 years ago.  This climatic stage was an interstadial–a relatively warm wet phase of the Ice Age.  It was likely well before people entered the region, so I could experience an ecosystem completely uninfluenced by man.  Pollen evidence from deep ocean cores suggests an expansion of oak woodlands and forests during interstadials, while pine and spruce declined.  (Botanists distinguish the difference between woodland and forest.  A woodland has 50%-80% canopy coverage; a forest has >80% canopy coverage.)  Oak woodlands were probably the most common natural community in the Georgia piedmont during interstadials.  They had an open structure with centuries-old, large diameter trees in the overstory and herbaceous and grassy understories.  Megafauna trampling and foraging along with low intensity fires and occasional windstorms maintained the open structure of the woodlands.  Areas less frequented by megafauna and protected from fire fostered thicker forests.  Oaks dominated the landscape but co-occurred with hickory, chestnut, and pine.  The warmer the climate phase, the greater the variety of trees.

Oak woodlands provided ample food for a large population of animals.  Acorns and plants growing in the understory fed herds of ungulates as well as bears, small game, and birds.  Bison, horses, and mammoths prefer(ed) prairies and meadows, and mastodons foraged alongside streams.  Although these species occasionally wandered into woodlands, they were probably less common than other species of ungulates in this environment.  Instead, ungulates that fed mostly on forest vegetation prevailed in oak woods.  Studies of bone chemistry that determined dietary preference suggest forest denizens included white-tail deer, long-nosed peccary, tapir, and paleollama.  These are the ungulates I would expect to see from a window in my imaginary wilderness cabin.  Fossil remains of paleollama ( Palaeolama mirifica) have not been found north of the coastal plain, but they may have ranged into the piedmont.  Its cousin, the large headed llama ( Hemiauchenia macrocephela ), was more widespread and isotopic studies indicate it could subsist on either prairie or forest vegetation.  The presence of at least 1 species of llama in central Georgia seems likely.  And of course herds of ungulates attracted a whole array of predators.  The woods of today seem so destitute by comparison.

DNR Camera Project

 

 

 

 

 

10 white-tail deer and a turkey.  This species of deer and its immediate ancestor have populated southeastern North America for millions of years.

Long-nosed peccary.  The success of invasive wild hogs shows that forest environments in the south can support a large population of pig-like animals.

Mountain tapir and young

Mountain tapir with a baby.  Tapirs that lived in the upper south during the Pleistocene likely were adapted to temperate climates like this species.  Isotopic studies of tapir bones indicate they preferred the thickest part of the forest.

Paleollamas of the Pleistocene Period in Florida.

Paleollamas.  They occurred in Florida and the coastal plain and may have ranged into the piedmont.  This species of llama also preferred deep forest, but its cousin, the large-headed llama, was more adaptable.

 

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