The Reddick Fossil Site in Marion County, Florida

One could almost refer to the Reddick Fossil Site in Florida as Rancho La Brea east.  It’s one of the richest eastern sites in species diversity, but nevertheless falls far short of Rancho La Brea’s treasure chest of fossils.  At least 147 species of vertebrates were recovered from Reddick compared to 231 from Rancho La Brea and the latter also far surpasses the former in quantity. Moreover, Rancho La Brea is still being excavated.  The Reddick Fossil Site was an abandoned limerock quarry excavated during the early 1960’s.  The Pleistocene topography consisted of limesink lakes and caverns with a soil chemistry that helped preserve the bones of many animals.  Owls roosted in the caves during the Pleistocene, and bones from the small mammals and birds they ate were found in their fossil pellets.  The composition of species shows that a wide variety of habitats occurred locally, including woodland, grassland, and wetland.  The fossil remains are thought to date to between ~200,000 BP- ~114,000 BP.  The presence of glyptodont, vampire bat, ocelot, and giant tortoise is evidence of a climate at least as warm as today’s Florida, even though this period of time includes the Illinois Ice Age.  This is the only site in southeastern North America where ocelot fossil remains have been found.  Only 32 of the 147 species are extinct.  Many of the large mammals were probably overhunted by man into extinction, and we know for sure passenger pigeons were.  However, some of the bird extinctions were local species that became extinct during marine high stages of the Sangamonian Interglacial when much of their terrestrial habitat was lost to high sea levels.  The following is the Reddick Fossil Site faunal list from the below referenced work.  * denotes extinct species.  + indicates an extant species no longer native to Florida.  The remarkable thing about this list is how few reptiles have gone extinct.  This suggests little environmental change in this region over the past 200,000 years.  (I’m not including the scientific name for most of these entries.  I feel lazy today and it’s almost a holiday.  Happy Thanksgiving.)

Map of Florida highlighting Marion County

Marion County, location of 1 of the best Pleistocene fossil sites in southeastern North America.

Greater siren

Mud siren

Ambystoma sp. (a type of salamander)

eastern spadefooted toad

oak toad

common toad

narrow-mouthed toad

tree frog sp.

leopard frog

Pseudemys sp. (a type of slider/cooter turtle)

box turtle (Terrepene carolina putnami)–an extinct subspecies but extant species

gopher tortoise

*medium-sized land tortoise–Hesperotestudo incisa

*giant land tortoise–H. crassicutata

soft-shelled turtle

green anole lizard

eastern race runner

5-lined skink

common glass lizard

Florida worm lizard

eastern ring-necked snake

mud snake

yellow-lipped snake

eastern hog-nosed snake

southern hog-nosed snake

rough green snake

black racer

coachwhip snake

indigo snake

king snake

corn snake

rat snake

pine snake

crowned snake

brown snake

garter snake

coral snake

pygmy rattlesnake

Rattle.jpg (68536 bytes)

 

 

 

 

 

 

All of the species of snakes found at the Reddick fossil site were still relatively common when Columbus reached North America

eastern diamondback rattlesnake

alligator

pied-billed grebe

*extinct grebe, a diver in the podiceps genus

mottled duck

pintail duck

shoveler

blue-winged teal

green-winted teal

ring-necked duck

*extinct condor–Gymnogyps amplus

turkey vulture

*extinct vulture–Coragyps occidentalis

Cooper’s hawk

sharp-shinned hawk

red-tailed hawk

red-shouldered hawk

peregrine falcon

sparrow hawk

caracara

quail

*extinct quail–Neotyx pennisubali

turkey

Virginia rail

sora

*extinct rail–Porzana auffenbergi

yellow rail

*extinct rail–Laterallus guti

*extinct coot–Fuliza merm

common crow

fish crow

blue jay

*extinct jay–in protocitta genus

house wren

*extinct wren–Gasthothanus brevs

maryland yellowthroat

cowbird

red-winged blackbird

grackle

eastern meadowlark

rufous-sided towhee

Henslow’s sparrow

Henslow

Henslow’s sparrow.  This species prefers weedy grassland habitat.  Ducks and rails prefer wetlands.  Passenger pigeons and woodpeckers need woodlands.  The composition of birds reflects varied habitats near this locality during the Pleistocene.

killdeer

lesser yellowlegs

common snipe

*passenger pigeon

mourning dove

barn owl

screech owl

burrowing owl

barred owl

yellow-shafted flicker

red-headed woodpecker

eastern kingbird

purple martin

*extinct swallow–Tachycinctus spelodytes

oppossum

*vampire bat–Desmodus stockii

southeastern myotis

red bat

Florida yellow bat

Brazilian free-tailed bat

*Wheatley’s ground sloth–the evolutionary ancestor of Jefferson’s ground sloth

*Harlan’s ground sloth

*Beautiful armadillo

*pampathere–a giant armadillo

*glyptodont

marsh rabbit

cottontail rabbit

southern flying squirrel

undetermined squirrel in scurius genus–probably a gray squirrel

southeastern pocket gopher

rice rat

harvest mouse

old field mouse

cotton mouse

Florida mouse

golden mouse

cotton rat

wood rat

pine vole

round-tailed muskrat

*Florida bog lemming–Synaptomys australis

*dire wolf

+coyote

gray fox

*Florida spectacled bear–Tremarctos floridanus

black bear

raccoon

+hog-nosed skunk

spotted skunk

striped skunk

+jaguar

cougar

+ocelot

aka, the dwarf leopard,

Reddick is the only fossil site in southeastern North America where remains of an ocelot have been found

bobcat

saber-tooth–Smilodon fatalis

mastodon

mammoth

+horse

*tapir

*long-nosed peccary

*flat-headed peccary

*large-headed llama

*stout-legged llama

white-tailed deer

bison

Reference:

Gut, James H.; and Clayton Ray

“The Pleistocene Vertebrate Fauna of Reddick, Florida”

Quarterly Journal of the Florida Academy of Science 1964

 

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