How Recently did the Jaguar (Panthera onca) Roam Eastern North America?

Most people think of the jaguar as a tropical species of cat that lives in deep jungles.  But human persecution is the reason the majority of the world’s remaining population of jaguars lives in remote jungles.  Jaguars can only survive in areas where human density is low.   Ranchers defending their livestock, and people coveting the big cat’s beautiful spotted coat eliminate jaguars from many areas far outside tropical jungles.  The jaguar is probably as adaptable as the Asiatic tiger which ranges into temperate and even boreal forests.  Today, jaguars are known to occur in the deserts of northwest Mexico.  If they can live in jungles and deserts, surely they could adapt to temperate forests as long as suitable prey was available. The Pleistocene fossil record proves that jaguars once ranged over most of North America.  Jaguar fossils have been found as far northwest as Whitman County, Washington and as far northeast as Port Kennedy, Pennsylvania.  Across the southeast jaguar fossils are among the most common of the large carnivores found by fossil collectors.  Along with dire wolves they were probably a dominant predator in the region’s forests for most of the Pleistocene, being more common than the infamous saber-tooth.  So how recently did this dominant predator of the Pleistocene roam North America east of the Mississippi?

Historical range of the jaguar shaded red.  A jaguar was possibly killed 1o miles east of the Mississippi River in 1886. John Lawson wrote that he saw a “tyger” in North Carolina circa 1710.  He knew the difference between a cougar and a jaguar, so I doubt he was mistaken.  The Pleistocene range of the jaguar extended as far north as Washington state and Pennsylvania.  I suspect its Holocene range was also greater than range maps indicate.

I believe Indians gradually overhunted most of the megafauna to extinction between 15,000 BP-~7,000 BP, completely eliminating some species from some regions but haphazardly leaving remnant populations in inadvertent refuges until those too were wiped out.  Jaguars on average take larger prey than cougars, so the decline in megafauna diversity reduced jaguar populations across much of their former range.  Moreover, the Indians directly hunted jaguars for their spotted coat, further reducing their numbers.  Still, there is no ecological reason why jaguars couldn’t have persisted in eastern, particularly southeastern, forests, as long as there was plenty of deer.  In the mid-1960’s a jaguar escaped from captivity and lived in a Florida marsh near Vero Beach for 2 years until a hunter killed the cat.  And deer populations were smaller then than they are today.  Jaguars must have been largely absent from pre-settlement eastern forests because the pre-Columbian population density of Indians was just too high.  However, male jaguars sometimes roam for up to 500 miles.  There was enough wilderness left that a jaguar occasionally could range undetected into the managed woodlands adjacent to Indian towns.  (Indians set fire to the forests regularly to improve habitat for game.) Several artifacts do show that eastern and midwestern Indians did know what jaguars were.

A gorget made out of a conch shell with a jaguar engraving.  This was found in Missouri.

Posted Image

Jaguar paw prints in a Missouri Cave.  Their age is unknown.

The Missouri conch shell gorget undoubtedly represents a jaguar.  The conch shell, imported from the coast, suggests Indian trade routes from Benton County, Missouri to the sea but, of course, is not proof jaguars lived in Missouri during the time period.  Engraved images of jaguars on 2 bones excavated from a Hopewell burial mound in Ohio date to about 500 AD.  One of the bones was of a human.  They could have been engraved by a person from west of the Mississippi, but perhaps jaguars occasionally wandered into Ohio then.  Two Indian artifacts from Moundsville, Alabama–an effigy pipe and a shell gorget–represent jaguars.  Pottery dating to between 1100 AD-1700 AD found in Florida is engraved with images of a cat.  The engraving is perforated.  The perforations may represent spots, but may also be a design that prevented the pottery from shattering when heated.

John Lawson, an early naturalist explorer (See ), did write that he saw a “tyger” once.  He never went west of North Carolina, and he knew the difference between a cougar and a jaguar, so I regard this as probable evidence of a jaguar in North Carolina between 1700-1711.  They were rare but present.  Here’s his account:

“Tygers are never met withal in the Settlement; but are more to the Westward, and are not numerous on this Side the Chain of Mountains.  I once saw one, that was larger than a Panther and seem’d to be a very bold Creature.  The Indians that hunt in those Quarters, say, they are seldom met withal.  It seems to differe from the Tyger of Asia and Africa.”

A newspaper article from a June 1886 edition of the Donaldsonville Chief, may be the most recent documented proof of a jaguar east of the Mississippi River.  A big cat had been killing cattle in Ascension Parish, Louisiana which is 10 miles east of the Mississippi River.  Allen Martin and Johnny Walker tracked the big cat down and sicked their dogs on it.  The cat killed 3 of the dogs before one of the hunters “laid it low” with a rifle shot.  They reported that it was 8 feet long and weighed 250 pounds, and they referred to it as an “American tiger,” not a panther.  They were familiar with panthers.  This cat was significantly larger than a panther, or cougar.  The name American tiger was formerly used for jaguar.  Though this probably is an account of a jaguar, curiously there’s no mention of a spotted coat, so it’s not 100% certain.  If it is, this means jaguars persisted in Louisiana 26 years later than those in California which were eliminated there by 1860.  Jaguars continued to range the big thicket region of eastern Texas until about 1902.  An average of 1 was killed annually in south Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico until 1948 when a predator control poisoning program on both sides of the U.S./Mexican border caused their complete extirpation north of the Rio Grande along with Mexican grizzlies and wolves.  Within the last decade jaguars have occasionally ranged into New Mexico, but the xenophobic fence built to keep Mexicans from crossing the border will hinder the jaguar’s return as well.


Daggett, Pierre; and Dale Henry

“The Jaguar in North America”

American Antiquity 39 (3) July 1974

Nowak, Ronald

“A Possible Occurrence of the Jaguar in Louisiana”

The Southwestern Naturalist 17 (4) 1973

See also:

Jaguar killing a caiman.

Port Kennedy Cave, Pennsylvania

In 1871 workers excavated stone from a limestone fissure they named Port Kennedy Cave, later known as bone cave for all the bones they found.  This cave in near the historic Valley Forge, Pennsylvania.  Cope was the first scientist to identify the fossils found here, but over the past centuries dozens of scientists have studied the specimens because it’s an important Irvingtonian-aged site.  Based on the species of fossils, they’re estimated to be between 1.5 million-300,000 years old which is the Irvingonian Land Mammal Age.  The list of species found here includes Wheatley’s ground sloth, evolutionary ancestor to Jefferson’s ground sloth; Smilodon gracilis which is ancestral to Smilodon fatalis ; the lesser short-faced bear (Arctodus pristinus) ancestral to the giant short-faced bear (Arctodus simus); black bear (Ursus americanus), tapir, peccary, wolverine, skunk, and mastodon.  There were a lot of fossils of smaller animals too, but the excavation at this early date was so clumsy they disintegrated into useless fragments.  Later, groundwater flooded the site, ending the collection of fossils here.  Ehret Magnesium Company dumped asbestos and other debris on the fissure and now it’s buried and lost.  I haven’t been able to determined from information on the web whether recent attempts to relocate the site have been successful.

I mention this site because it’s the northeasternmost known pre-historic occurrence of the jaguar.  Fragmentary remains of a probable jaguar were found in Washington State, making that the northwesternmost locality known of a pre-historic jaguar, but a complete jaguar skeleton dating to 38,600 BP was found in an Oregon cave where a 50,000 year old grizzly skeleton was also found.  That is the oldest grizzly bear fossil known in North America.

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33 Responses to “How Recently did the Jaguar (Panthera onca) Roam Eastern North America?”

  1. James Robert Smith Says:

    “Tiger” is one of the most misinterpreted terms in many languages. I once corresponded with a park ranger in Israel to ask about “tigers” being listed as free-ranging predators in Israel (according to one of their park sites). He realized that it had been mistranslated and should have read: leopard.

    Jaguars are now apparently being sighted in New Mexico and have been reported as crossing the Texas/Mexico border from time to time. I reckon they can get around, through, or over the fences.

  2. markgelbart Says:

    The fence isn’t continuous. The U.S. fish and wildlife Service doesn’t consider Louisiana part of the jaguar’s historical range, though habitat there is probably better than what’s available in the southwest desert.

  3. p Says:

    Good piece. I came across a reference to John Lawson years ago and read his book. I was fascinated by the reference to jaguars and his accurate description of pumas and bobcats: clearly he was not referring to a puma or bobcat. I think you are right that they ranged into the southeast in historical times. But Lawson says that jaguars were more common on the other side of the Appalachians. How far? Perhaps he meant far on the other side: Texas, for instance. That would leave them no closer than the generally accepted range. And he says he saw one – and again, I personally think he did – but is it possible that he saw only a traded pelt? He seems to imply it was a living jaguar, but I don’t know if that is certain.

    But as you write, there is no reason that jaguars could not have lived there in historical times, as they lived just about to the glaciers previously. Old World diseases killed a lot of Native Americans long before the English began to settle the area. Perhaps jaguars spread back into their former range after it was depopulated.

    In a perfect world we would reintroduce them to portions of their former range, but clearly that is not going to happen.

    • markgelbart Says:

      Lawson had no reason to make up his sighting of a jaguar. It wouldn’t encourage people to settle in North Carolina which was the purpose of his writing.

      Note that he said it seemed a “bold” individual. A pelt can’t be bold, so without a doubt he was describing a living animal.

      • Mark LaRoux Says:

        He also may have seen a jaguarundi and thought of it as a jaguar (especially if during the daytime). Sounds legitimate for either actually.

  4. Margie Vicknair Says:

    My grandmother who was born in the area of French Settlement, Louisiana in 1894 enthralled us grandkids with a terrifying story from her childhood (true, she swore, and my grandmother was not a story spinner type). French Settlement is in the middle of swamp lands and is still relatively sparsely settled, so I can imagine it around the turn of the century (1900). My grandmother said that she was 6 to 8 years old and that her father had gone off on a hunting trip taking their only gun; this was normal and he would often be gone for few days looking for game. She and her mother and brothers were in their small cabin and heard a cat scream that still made my grandmother shiver when she described it. Her mother ran outside and brought their dairy cow into the cabin and banked up the fire to make it very bright in the cabin. My grandmother said that the cat called several more times, each time getting closer to the cabin. Her mother grabbed her broom – it was summertime, so the solid door was open and tied back outside to keep it open, so all that was between them and the outdoors was a screen door. My grandmother would shiver again at this point – she looked up at the door when they heard a sound on the porch and there were two huge green eyes staring in at them reflecting the firelight. My grandmother always said that the huge cat was black, but I don’t know how much detail she could see. Her mother went towards the door and starting hitting at the screen with the broom, afraid that the cat would rip through it and come in. It backed off the porch but hung around the cabin for a good while afterwards. She said none of them would leave the cabin until their dad returned the next day. So there were definitely big cats in the Louisiana swamps in the early 1900s – this one may have been a “swamp panther”.

  5. margie12 Says:

    I don’t truly remember whether my grandmother described the sound as a scream or a roar, only that she shivered when she described it. I wrote because Donaldsonville and French Settlement are neighboring communities (both in Ascension Parish) not far separated in Louisiana, and the time period mentioned for the jaguar story is in roughly the same time period (ca 1900). Just thinking that there may have been a possibility that it was a jaguar vs a panther as there may have been a small population of them in the area?

  6. The Nature of 12 Years a Slave | GeorgiaBeforePeople Says:

    […] jaguars occurred as far east as Louisiana until as late as 1887 (See:😉  Early colonists referred to them as “the American tiger” to distinguish them from a […]

  7. Tapirs: North America’s Forgotten Megafauna | The Wildernist Says:

    […] Gelbart, “How recently did the jaguar (Panthera onca) roam Eastern North America?” […]

  8. Jim Says:

    The term tiger was used interchangeably with the word “panther” in the mid 1800s in Louisiana. See “Tigers, and Tiger Hunting in Louisiana,” H. J. Peck, Spirit of the Times, January 18, 1845, 560.

  9. My 500th Post | GeorgiaBeforePeople Says:

    […]… […]

  10. m Says:

  11. leo Says:

    they are still here in DE they are black w/ yellow spots w/ a dot in the middle hidden in their fur a farmer I met killed 1 of 2 trying to get in his chicken house an I saw a cougar about 100lbs near oc md an old book I read said they were both up and down the atlantic coastal plain when the Europeans arrived

    • markgelbart Says:

      No way.

      There are no jaguars in Delaware today.

      If a farmer would have killed a jaguar in Delaware, it would have made front page news. There would have been a newspaper photo taken.

      I’m sure the cat your farmer friend killed was bobcat, not jaguar.

      Note: they are yellow (tawny really) with black spots. You’ve got the description backwards.

      My wife’s late uncle was a chicken farmer and he often saw bobcats trying to get into his chicken houses.

  12. Joshua Says:

    I believe yo it’s wrongnindians did not hunt the jaguar. We respected such killers. We only took what we needed from nature not killing it because it’s some game. That’s what Europeans do. We got fooled by Europeans greed to kill animals for trade for lousy goods in the past. The black panther or black jaguar was once roaming Ohio. My tribe spoke about it in our history. Our fearless leader was named Panther in the sky. Tecumseh.

    • markgelbart Says:


      You are a racist in that you think Indians have some superior philosophy about killing animals and staying in balance with nature.

      In fact game animals were scarce around Indian villages because Indians overhunted them.

      Indians definitely hunted all animals and killed as many as possible.

      Indians are responsible for the extinction of 70% of the large animals that lived in North America thousands of years before white men ever even knew about the continent.

      • Charles Ray Says:

        Well said. People are people, all over the world, and share most of the same traits…good and bad. The PC image of pre-Columbian America as a paradise populated by indigenous people who multi-tasked as social justice warriors/eco-concious environmentalists is just a fairy tale.

  13. Charles Ray Says:

    “…but the xenophobic fence built to keep Mexicans from crossing the border…”

    Great article- until this stinky nugget of socio-political rant.

  14. Tapirs: North America's Forgotten Megafauna | The Wild Will Project Says:

    […] Gelbart, “How recently did the jaguar (Panthera onca) roam Eastern North America?” […]

  15. Gator 45/70 Says:

    Only one I’ve ever seen was along the Sabine river on the Louisiana side about the time Kennedy was killed in Dallas,The teen I was with pointed it out coming along the sand bar weaving in and out of the Willows,Thing was ungodly fast,Low to the ground about 7 foot long and muscles on top of muscles,Thing stopped on a sand bar across from us as we laid down when we first saw it,Came to the water and I whispered I was going to shoot it with the 410,JR said aim over its head, I told him I had it at 6 feet high,He said go higher,I did and pulled the trigger,The Panther whirled around and booked it up the bank as I think only 2 BB’s actually made it across the water. Thing was as black as my Labrador,Something I will never forget

  16. Randy Cullinan Says:

    This entire post concerning Jaguars in North America is laughable. While you fight over when they became extinct in the area, they are currently very much alive in most all states east of the Mississippi and a few on the other side such as Arkansas. All or most of them are Melanistic black and yes, they are breeding best they can. Without Govt assistance, we could only guess at their numbers but I suspect 10 to 20 thousand based on estimates of the more prevalent Mountain Lions. The Govt denies their existence because they would have HUGE financial and other repercussions if they admit they are here. This is one of the largest Govt coverups to date. My sighting of a black Jaguar was 2013 and they are seen by someone and reported at least weekly in an Eastern state.

    • markgelbart Says:

      No way. No way are 10,000-20,000 jaguars roaming present day North American east of the Mississippi. What part of your ass did you pull that number from? Where did you get this ridiculous conspiracy theory. Show proof or shut up.

    • Charles Ray Says:

      “This entire post concerning Jaguars in North America is laughable.”

      Do tell.

      “While you fight over when they became extinct in the area, they are currently very much alive in most all states east of the Mississippi and a few on the other side such as Arkansas.”

      East of the Mississippi was not their primary range so why would it be their stronghold now?

      “All or most of them are Melanistic black and yes, they are breeding best they can.”

      Melanistic black represents a a fraction of color forms even in areas of South America where they are numerous.

      “Without Govt assistance, we could only guess at their numbers but I suspect 10 to 20 thousand based on estimates of the more prevalent Mountain Lions.”

      10,000 to 20,000 black jaguars roaming eastern America….and not the first one shot, hit by a car or even a good, clear definitive photo of one-? I bet you believe in Bigfoot, too.

      Yep, I’m laughing now!

      “The Govt denies their existence because they would have HUGE financial and other repercussions if they admit they are here. This is one of the largest Govt coverups to date. My sighting of a black Jaguar was 2013 and they are seen by someone and reported at least weekly in an Eastern state.”


  17. Suburban_elk Says:

    Do you advocate for no nations anywhere in the world?

    Such an idea, is disordered madness.

    Human groups form societies, such as was America. America has its problems, but giving it over to Mexico, is a political proposal that a good number of real people, real WHITE AMERICANS, will fight against.

    If you dislike White Americans and want them gone, that’s an opinion, but they are not going to congratulate you on your suggestions that they be overrun with South of the Border.

    • markgelbart Says:

      I never said the U.S. should give over America to Mexico, you stupid redneck racist shithead.

      • Suburban_elk Says:

        Do you disagree that White Americans can exclude people from their country?

        Do you deny every People on the face of the Earth, that prerogative, or only White Americans?

      • markgelbart Says:

        I disagree with racist shitheads, like you. I believe we should let them all in and I’d like to deport you to Nazi Germany. I am sure you’d be happy there.

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